Diazepam (CAS 439-14-5) is one of the best known benzodiazepines (Valium®). According to IUPAC, the fully systematic name is 9-chloro-2-methyl-6-phenyl-2,5-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undeca-5,8, 10,12-tetraen-3-one or 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one.
Benzodiazepines are widely used in medicine to treat anxiety and insomnia. These are synthetic substances normally seen as pharmaceutically-manufactured tablets, capsules and occasionally as injectables. They act as depressants of the central nervous system (CNS). Chlordiazepoxide (Librium®) was the first to be synthesised in 1957 and introduced into medicine in 1961. Benzodiazepines are under international control.